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Saturday, August 21, 2010

Photoresistors




Light-sensitive resistor or Photoresistors are electronic components that resistance will decline if there are additional light intensity about it. Photoresistors can also refer to a light-dependent resistor (LDR), or a photoconductor.




Photoresistors made of semiconductors that have very high resistance. If the light is about to have a high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor will cause the electrons have enough energy to jump into the conduction band. 
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Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Diode


Crystal diodes have been popular before the thermionic diode, thermionic and solid state diodes developed in parallel. The principle of thermionic diodes was discovered by Frederick Guthrie in 1873. 








Semiconductor Diode 

Diodes which are currently based on semiconductor pn junction. In a pn diode, conventional current can flow from p-type side (the anode) to the n-type side (the cathode), but can not flow in reverse. Another type of semiconductor diodes, Schottky diodes, formed from the relationship between metals and semiconductors with a pn junction. 


Diode Pn is a connection material that serves primarily as a rectifier. P-type material into the anode side while the n-type material into cathode. Depending on the polarity of the voltage given to him, the diode can act as a switch is closed (if the anode have a positive voltage while the cathode get a negative voltage) and is valid as a switch is open (when the anode have a negative voltage while the cathode get a positive voltage). These conditions occur only at the conceptual ideal diode. In diodes factual (real), it is necessary voltage greater than 0.7 V (for diodes made of silicon material) at the anode to the cathode to the diode can deliver an electrical current.Voltage of 0.7 V is called a voltage barrier (barrier voltage). Diodes made from Germanium has a beam voltage of about 0.3 V. 
• Light-emitting diode or LED is a diode that emits light when a given forward bias. LEDs are made from semiconductors such as gallium arsenide mixed phosphide (GaAsP), gallium phosphide (GaP), gallium indium phosphide (GaInP), gallium arsenide aluminum (GaAlAs), etc..

• Photo diode (fotovoltaic) is used to convert light energy into electrical energy in the same direction 

• Diode laser is used to generate low-level laser light, the way it works is similar LED 

• Zenner diodes used for voltage regulation. 



Diode light, or better known as LED (light-emitting diode) is a semiconductor that emits incoherent monochromatic light when given a forward voltage. 

Color produced depends on the semiconducting material used, and can be near ultraviolet or near infrared.


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Monday, July 26, 2010

Capacitor

Capacitor is a device that can store energy in the electric field, by collecting an internal imbalance of electric charge. Capacitor has units called farads. Discovered by Michael Faraday (1791-1867). Capacitors are now also known as the "capacitor", but the word "condenser" is still used today. First mentioned by the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta in 1782 (from the Italian condensatore), with regard to the ability of the appliance to store a high electrical charge than other components. 




















Polyester capacitor
insulating material used is polyester which dapt provide a relatively high capacitance value. The second metal plate using a paper material or film material which is injected into the insulation.










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Saturday, July 17, 2010

Kinds of Resistors

Fixed Resistor
  • Carbon film resistor is one of the most common types of resistors used and has very good frequency response. Carbon Film Resistor material is a mixture of carbon with a long piece of ceramic rods. This resistor value itself is marked with color code.








  • Metal film resistor is made from a mixture of metal and ceramic. physical form of resistor is the same with carbon resistor, which determines the value of resistance equal to the carbon resistor. This resistor difference is the accuracy with carbon resistors and resistor has a temperature coefisient and lower noise, and do not have a voltage coefisient.








  • Fuse Resistor is a resistor that functions as a fuse. If the current through the resistor is very large, the resistance of this resistor will be turned into a very large, even infinite.




  • Power Wirewound Resistor, These resistors have a larger physical form other resisor, and is commonly used circuits that require very large power. At the time of operation, this resistor can generate substantial heat so it is often covered by other materials such as anodized aluminum, Fiberglass Mandels, ceramic tubes, ceramic rods, etc.








  • Precision resistors Wirewound, resistors are the most suitable for use in the DC circuit because it has a very high degree of accuracy up to 0005%, and TCR (Temperature coefficient of resistance) is very low. This resistor is used on the regulator is best suited and least suited to radio frequency (RF) because it has a resonance frequency Q is very low.



  • Standard resistor NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) is a type of resistor used on the instruments, and is standard in verification token accuracy of a measuring tool.These resistors have a TCR of low and very stable compared to the Precision Wirewound Resistors, and has the highest accuracy of up to 0001%.
  • SIP (singgle In Line) is  is a resistor arranged in parallel, and are made in one package. This resistor is usually called Resistor Pack or R-pack.

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Friday, July 9, 2010

Thermistor


Thermistor is a resistor that is usually used to measure temperature. Thermiastor will work if exposed to temperatures or temperature, whereby when the temperature of the thermistor changes in thermistor resistance will also vary. Thermistor is generally made of ceramic or polymer materials. Reference standard thermistor temperature is at room temperature is 25 ° C.














NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficienct)



At the time the surrounding temperature rise resistance value decreases. NTC is a semiconducting ceramic resistor produced by sintering the material at high temperatures, and using metal oxide as the main ingredient.








PTC (Positive Temperature coefficient thermistor)


At the time the surrounding temperature rise resistance value increases.PTC is made of the BaTiO3 ceramics. 

BaTiO3 ceramics is a kind of typical ferroelectric material with a resistivity greater than 10 12 Ω.cm temperatures below normal.














CTR (Critical Temperature Resistor)


Resistance value will decrease rapidly when the temperature

rises above the surrounding temperature is a key point.
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Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Resistor

Resistors

Resistors are electronic components that serves to set or keep the current flowing strong. The units are ohm resistor (Ω).


Fixed ResistorsFixed resistor is the resistor resistance value is not changing, and the amount of prisoners who had symbolized by the color of a circle located throughout the body. Fixed resistors are generally made of carbon materials. Fixed resistors consist of two types namely kesil resistors with power, and resistors with a large power.
Resistors are helpless little resistance values symbolized by the color code, while having great power symbolized by the numbers.









Resistor color code:
No
Color
Ring 1
Ring 2
Ring 3
Ring 4
1
2
3
4
1
Black
-
0
-

2
Chocolate
1
1
0

3
Red
2
2
00

4
Orange
3
3
000

5
Yellow
4
4
0000

6
Green
5
5
00000

7
Blue
6
6
000000

8
Purple
7
7
0000000

9
Gray
8
8
00000000

10
White
9
9
000000000

11
Gold
-
-
0.1
5%
12
Silver
-
-
0.01
10%

Example:

4 Color
Ring 1 = Orange
Ring 2 = Red
Ring 3 = Yellow
Ring 4 = Gold
So the summary is:
 R = 320000Ω = 320kΩ / 5%

5 Color
Ring 1 = Red
Ring 2 = Red
Ring 3 = Black
Ring 4 = Red
Ring 5 = Chocolate
So the summary is:
R = 22000Ω = 22kΩ / 1%
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Saturday, June 12, 2010

Conductor, Insulator, Semiconductor.

Conductor
Conductor is a device or material that can deliver an electric current. A good conductor is a material having a very small resistivity. In general, the conductive material is metal. Gold, silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, iron in a row has resistivity greater. So the material that has the best conductivity is gold, but because the price is very expensive, the copper and aluminum are economically the most widely used.

Insulator
Insulator is the type of material has a very large resistance, so that he can not deliver electricity and heat. Insulator is usually used to inhibit the flow of electricity which is used on the cable. isolator consisting of non-metal materials such as plastics, ebonite, paper, human body, water, soil.

Semiconductors
Semiconductor is a material that has electrical conductivity in between insulator and conductor.A semiconductor will have properties as an insulator at very low temperatures, but at room temperature besifat as a conductor. The most common semiconductor material used is silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide.
Very useful in the field of semiconductor electronics, because conductivity that can be altered by injecting another material (usually called the material doping). Semiconductors are the types of materials most widely used and very important in electronic components.
READ MORE - Conductor, Insulator, Semiconductor.

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